The birth certificate of Plovdiv. That is how historians and archeologists named the exclusive complex Nebet, spilled on the plateau of the same name hill in the north of Three Hills. It’s the place where the ancient city first appears. There was laid the first stone in the development of the settlement before 8000 years. On Nebet was found evidence of the oldest settlements on the territory of today's town dating back to the VI century BC. The eras and civilizations are superimposed on one another. Nebet Tepe is declared as a monument of the culture. It’s one of the most important cultural-historical objects not only in Bulgaria, but in the Balkans. The archaeological complex has many secrets under the surface so specialists are still seeking its treasures. The sacral place is favorite of the citizens of Plovdiv and its guests because of its energy, rich history and spirit of civilizations which you can feel on every rock. Also because of the romantic view.
There’s a lot of history associated with the hill. There were a lot of things in different timelines, each and every valuable. In fact, studies are still inadequate. We meet many diverse scientific theses on the issue. It is uncertain when the first settlement was established, if it was a settlement or a sanctuary and what kind of buildings were on the top. It’s not quite sure when and what exactly the next stages of development were. These are all questions that must be answered after new researches.
The myths tell that Nebet tepe accepted its first residents because of the natural protection offered by rocks of the northern part of the hill. The first constructions are from the Bronze Age. On the hill are the remains of the first settlement of Three Hills, which began to evolve and expand to become the most significant Thracian city in Bulgaria inhabited by Thracian tribe Besi. Scientists still cannot give an unambiguous opinion about the name of the city at the time - Evmolpia or Pulpudeva.
In 342 BC Philip Macedonian conquers the Thracian village of Nebet tepe. This is the time when the Macedonian kingdom began to be established as the most powerful force in the Balkans, reaching its peak at the time of Alexander the Macedonian. In this period the city name is Philippopole. After the IV century BC the city grows and takes its place as political and economic center of Thrace.
There are various assumptions when Philipopol is built around a fortified wall. According to some scholars, the village became a town and was fortified at the second millennium BC. There are assumptions that there was a royal complex and religious center. The new archeological researches show that Philipopol acquires urban and architectural urban look around the IV century BC.
During the Hellenistic the city grew eastward, mainly within the three hills. However, recent archaeological studies provide evidence that at the time Philipopol began to grow and at the foot of the hills. On Nebet tepe were found ruins of dwellings and fortifications dating from this period.
In I century Philippopole is included in the Roman Empire. This act increases its importance as a political, economic and cultural center of the province of Thrace. During this period it became a metropolis city - a regional center.
The oldest part of the fortress was constructed without any solder, with large syenite blocks – so called cyclopean masonry. During the Hellenistic era ancient Thracian Evmolpia expands throughout Three Hills and at its foot, and the old habitation fortress of Nebet become the citadel of the city acropolis, covered the highest parts of three hills. From this period are the remains of the western wall of the imposing quadrangular tower and entrance inside its country. There are preserved thick fortress walls surrounding the palace.
Cleaning Nebet tepe is discovered unique postern from Roman time - a secret tunnel in the rock massif on the north wall of the time of Justinian the Great (VI century). According guess it is passed through Apostle Paul. The tunnel has preserved staircase who leads to the right bank of the river. It is believed that the waters of the river have reached the very bottom of the hill.
There are also reserved reservoirs used for enemy sieges. The preserved until today rectangular reservoir causes interest with his size and capacity of 300,000 liters.